慶應SFC 2012年 総合政策学部 英語 大問2 内容一致解説

[51] Why does the author introduce three different examples (voting, word recall, and cancerous mutation) in the 1st paragraph?

・正答: 2. To suggest that seemingly different phenomena can be guided by a similar principle.


・正解の理由: 記事の導入部で「However unrelatethese phenomena may seem, a single scholarly fielhas helpeilluminate all of them」と述べられており、異なるように見える現象がネットワーク科学という一つの学問領域によって解明される点を強調しています。



  1. To show that the problem explored in this article is complicated. 



  1. To propose that different academic fields should collaborate to solve human problems.



  1. To demonstrate that human behaviors are beyond explanation.



[52] The phrase “two-way street” as used in the 3rd paragraph is closest in meaning to

・正答: 2. reciprocity.

  1. 相互性。


・正解の理由: 「it is a two-way street: network science “is one of the rare areas where you see physicists anmolecular biologists respectfully citing the work of social scientists anborrowing their ias,”」という文から、物理学者や分子生物学者が社会科学者の研究を尊重し、そのアイデアを借りることができるという相互性を示しています。



  1. divergence.



  1. monoculture.



  1. rapidity.  



[53] Network science is described as one of the rare areas in the 3rd paragraph because

・正答: 3. researchers in social science and molecular biology look to each other crossing disciplinary boundaries to approach network issues.


・正解の理由: 「network science “is one of the rare areas where you see physicists anmolecular biologists respectfully citing the work of social scientists anborrowing their ias,”」という文から、ネットワーク科学が異なる学問分野間での相互作用とアイデアの交換が見られる珍しい分野であることがわかります。




  1. social scientists, physicists, and molecular biologists compete against each other to develop a strong theory.



  1. social scientists find it difficult to use ideas borrowed from the field of molecular biology to account for the complexity of human behavior.



  1. molecular biologists think that ideas in social science are more powerful and persuasive than those in their own field.



[54] What is meant by “structurally simple, yet analytically incredibly complex” in the 4th paragraph?

・正答: 2. The basic structure of a network is simple, but what nodes and links can represent is virtually unlimited.


・正解の理由: 「Structurally simple, yet analytically increbly complex, networks holthe answers to so many questions」から、ネットワークの構造が単純であるにも関わらず、分析すると複雑さが増すことを指しています。ノードとリンクが表すことができるものの可能性が無限に広がることがこの複雑さの原因です。



  1. Nodes and links in a network are simple in structure, but one cannot make a scientific analysis of the structure.



  1. The theory of social networks has simple parts and components, but one cannot analyze their functions because of the great number of nodes and links.



  1. The phenomenon under consideration is simple, but the number of researchers makes it complicated with their own interpretations of nodes and links.



[55] Toshiyuki Nakagaki’s study as mentioned in the 6th paragraph

・正答: 4. demonstrated the problem-solving power of networks.


・正解の理由: 「These stues, they say, monstrate the problem-solving power possesseby networks」という文から、カビが迷路を通過する最短経路を見つける効率性を通じて、ネットワークが持つ問題解決の力を示していることがわかります。




  1. clarified the effect of mold on human behavior.



  1. demonstrated how humans are superior to mold in their problem-solving power.



  1. solved the problems of railway systems in Great Britain and Japan.



[56] Which of the following is not true of the Framingham Heart Study as mentioned in the 8th paragraph?

・正答: 1. Over 12,000 people took part.


・正解の理由: 「they mappemore than 50,000 social ties among 5,124 people (who were connected to an external network of more than 12,000 people)」とあるため、5,124人が研究に参加し、これらの人々が外部のネットワークにおいて12,000人以上とつながっていたことがわかりますが、直接12,000人以上が研究に参加したわけではありません。



  1. It began over 60 years ago.



  1. Christakis and Fowler did not lead the study. 



  1. It included data on the kind of food one eats.



[57] According to Christakis & Fowlers study on obesity, which of the following is true? 

・正答: 3. If your friend’s fathers coworker is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat.


・正解の理由: 「If a subject namea frienwho was also in the stu, anthat friens frienbecame obese, the first subject’s chances of becoming obese were roughly 20 percent greater. Across one more gree of influence (for instance, husbans friens frieni.e, three grees away), the risk was 10 percent greater」と記されています。これは、肥満が社会的ネットワークを通じて最大3段階の影響を及ぼすことを示しており、選択肢3がこの記述に最も適合します。



  1. If your cousin’s mother is fat, you have a 30% greater risk of becoming fat. 



  1. If your friend’s brother is fat, you have a 10% greater risk of becoming fat. 



  1. If your mother’s friend has a fat daughter, you have a 20% greater risk of becoming fat.



[58] According to the article, which of the following is the weakness of vaccination campaigns that aim to vaccinate everybody? 

・正答: 1. They waste time and money by giving too many vaccinations.


・正解の理由: 「Campaigns of the latter type over-vaccinate; immunizing only people who are hubs in social networks would enable administering a minimum of doses for maximum effect」と記されています。これは、全員を対象とするキャンペーンが過剰な予防接種を行うことで効率が悪く、費用対効果が低いことを示しています。



  1. They are ineffective at stopping the spread of disease. 



  1. Some people refuse vaccinations because of Internet rumors.



  1. They neglect to adequately protect healthcare workers.



[59] According to the article, which of the following is not true of the nature of network science? 


  1. Network science has successfully replaced the traditional theories of sociology, biology, and economics.


・正解の理由: 本文全体を通じて、ネットワーク科学が多様な分野での複雑な関係データを分析する手段として登場していることは説明されていますが、伝統的な理論を「置き換えた」という表現は見当たりません。ネットワーク科学は、異なる分野間での洞察を提供することで、伝統的な理論を補完する役割を果たしています。



  1. Network science is a new and emerging scientific discipline involving biological, social, physical, and other networks. 
  2. Network science seeks to discover common principles that govern network behavior. 





  1. Network science has emerged in diverse disciplines as a means of analyzing complex relational data. 



[60] The original title for this article is “Networked.” Which of the following would make the best subtitle?


  1. Exploring the weblike structures that underlie everything


・正解の理由: 本文はネットワーク科学がどのようにして様々な現象を照らし出し、理解するのに役立つかを示しています。選択肢3は、ネットワークが持つ広範な影響力と、それが私たちの世界をどのように形作っているかを探求する本文の内容を反映しています。



  1. The collapse of the interdisciplinary approach 



  1. Is computer science taking over the social sciences? 



  1. The dangers of modern social networking





メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です